How can learning be organized individually in class?
Internal differentiation in the classroom from the point of view of a teacher
There is now consensus that pupils have very different requirements in the classroom and should be encouraged accordingly. But how can a teacher do justice to the 25 to 35 students who sit in front of her as individually as possible? What tools are available for this and why do colleagues still find it difficult to fall back on them from time to time?
Pupils bring different requirements and interests, experiences, and skills to the school. Some are enthusiastic about the performing game and thus open up literary texts. Others seek the challenge of solving tricky logic tasks. Some children need support and motivation to solve cognitively more demanding tasks, for example in the field of natural sciences, but they are convincing in sporting competitions or musical presentations and write my essay. Still, other students lack the basic knowledge of the German language due to personal experience to be able to follow the lessons. Today schools must and want to meet all these different starting skills, learning needs, or preferences to do justice to the learners. This applies to primary and secondary schools as well as to adult education. A heterogeneous student body needs lessons that understand diversity as a challenge and not as an obstacle. All pupils should be able to acquire competencies in their speed and on their way that lead them to a school leaving certificate and enable them to fully participate in our society.
Consequences of the diversity of learning requirements for the lesson
For a long time, the idea of â€‹â€‹a good school was based on the idea that certain subject-specific content was conveyed by the teacher in the classroom and that the pupils absorb, understand, and apply them. In this context, a lack of knowledge of the subject matter was attributed to cognitive deficits and/or a lack of motivation on the part of the students.
However, this understanding of learning is out of date, as numerous studies show, and no longer meets the social requirements that children and young people, but also we as adults, encounter today in a globalized and digitized world. The ability to acquire content independently and to acquire skills in a self-directed learning process has become an indispensable part of our educational biography and resume writing world. This applies to people of all ages. Every day we are faced with the challenge of sifting through, checking, evaluating, and, if necessary, discarding a mass of information to be able to form a well-founded judgment that we may also present to others and that guides our actions. Students have to practice these skills first. They have to be introduced to their increasing independence and maturity. The school takes on this task.
Numerous studies in educational psychology, empirical pedagogy, and teaching-learning research have shown that every person - and thus every single child and every single adolescent - grasps and understands the world in his / her way. Accordingly, each child's acquisition of knowledge and/or skills takes place differently. All students in a class create individual "constructions", even if they deal with the same content in class. This means that they absorb the content differently, process it, and embed it individually in their thinking structures. These findings have far-reaching consequences for teaching.
In today's pedagogical (teacher) training the "constructivist" idea dominates that learning can only meaningfully be carried out by an individual based on his or her own experiences, impressions, interests, abilities, or skills. It must therefore be a condition for good teaching that the teacher regards learning as an individual process of the students and takes into account their requirements in the lesson planning. Pupils learn better if they can choose tasks, social forms, or methodological approaches in class that suit their abilities, previous knowledge, and interests. Individualized learning also focuses on increasing the students' motivation and improving their skills in self-directed learning, by setting their own goals, pursuing them, and realistically assessing their performance and competencies as well as participating in the design of learning paths and lessons and my premium essay. The educationalists Wischer and Trautmann put it as follows: "The school should adapt to the child, and not the other way around." But how can a teacher teach and support a good 25 to 35 pupils per class as individually as possible in typical everyday secondary school life? Is that possible? But how can a teacher teach and support a good 25 to 35 pupils per class as individually as possible in typical everyday secondary school life? Is that possible? But how can a teacher teach and support a good 25 to 35 pupils per class as individually as possible in typical everyday secondary school life? Is that possible?
Teaching in a differentiated way
A sensible and well-documented way to do justice to the individual talents of the learner is to teach in a differentiated manner. This means that the students are also encouraged individually by the teacher within the learning group. One speaks here of internal differentiation of the learners in a heterogeneous learning group in contrast to the so-called external differentiation, which aims to form learning groups that are as homogeneous as possible, i.e. uniform according to certain criteria, and to gear the lessons often to the presented average performance level of the students ( see infobox).